Pyramide des Kukulcán Labrousse, Audran (): L'environnement antique des pyramides. Lauer, Jean-Philippe (): Le mystère des pyramides. Allgemein spricht man von einer n-eckigen Pyramide, um alle Pyramidenformen zusammen zu fassen. Die allgemeine Formel für das Volumen einer Pyramide. Pyramide (von altgriechisch πυραμίς pyramis [Gen. πυραμίδος pyramidos] aus ägyptisch pꜣmr ‚Grab, Pyramide') steht für: Pyramide (Bauwerk), eine Bauform.
Die Pyramiden von EuseignePyramide (von altgriechisch πυραμίς pyramis [Gen. πυραμίδος pyramidos] aus ägyptisch pꜣmr ‚Grab, Pyramide') steht für: Pyramide (Bauwerk), eine Bauform. Ihr nehmt gerade die Pyramide in Geometrie in Mathe durch? In diesem Lerntext lernst du den Aufbau einer Pyramide kennen. Außerdem lernst du, wie du die. Dieses spektakuläre Naturphänomen ist von der Strasse, die das Val d'Hérens durchquert, deutlich sichtbar. Es ist eine Reihe von schlanken Pyramiden, die.
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Login or Register. It is assumed that they had shrines at the top, but there is no archaeological evidence for this and the only textual evidence is from Herodotus.
The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions.
They are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun. Most pyramids had a polished, highly reflective white limestone surface, to give them a shining appearance when viewed from a distance.
The capstone was usually made of hard stone — granite or basalt — and could be plated with gold, silver, or electrum and would also be highly reflective.
The first pyramid was erected during the Third Dynasty by the Pharaoh Djoser and his architect Imhotep. This step pyramid consisted of six stacked mastabas.
The largest Egyptian pyramids are those at the Giza pyramid complex. The age of the pyramids reached its zenith at Giza in — BC.
At ft, it was the tallest building in the world until Lincoln Cathedral was finished in AD. It is the only one to survive into modern times.
The Ancient Egyptians covered the faces of pyramids with polished white limestone , containing great quantities of fossilized seashells.
Most pyramids are located near Cairo, with only one royal pyramid being located south of Cairo, at the Abydos temple complex. The last king to build royal pyramids was Ahmose ,  with later kings hiding their tombs in the hills, such as those in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor's West Bank.
Smaller pyramids with steeper sides were also built by the Nubians who ruled Egypt in the Late Period. While pyramids are associated with Egypt, the nation of Sudan has extant pyramids, the most numerous in the world.
The pyramids of Kush, also known as Nubian Pyramids, have different characteristics than the pyramids of Egypt. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones.
Pyramids were still being built in Sudan as late as AD. One of the unique structures of Igbo culture was the Nsude Pyramids , at the Nigerian town of Nsude, northern Igboland.
Circular stacks continued, till it reached the top. The structures were temples for the god Ala , who was believed to reside at the top.
A stick was placed at the top to represent the god's residence. The structures were laid in groups of five parallel to each other. Neither of these still survive and there is no evidence that they resembled Egyptian pyramids.
These buildings were not constructed in the same manner as the pyramids in Egypt. They do have inwardly sloping walls but other than those there is no obvious resemblance to Egyptian pyramids.
They had large central rooms unlike Egyptian pyramids and the Hellenikon structure is rectangular rather than square, The dating of these structures has been made from the pot shards excavated from the floor and on the grounds.
The latest dates available from scientific dating have been estimated around the 5th and 4th centuries.
Normally this technique is used for dating pottery , but here researchers have used it to try to date stone flakes from the walls of the structures.
This has created some debate about whether or not these structures are actually older than Egypt , which is part of the Black Athena controversy.
Mary Lefkowitz has criticised this research. She suggests that some of the research was done not to determine the reliability of the dating method, as was suggested, but to back up an assumption of age and to make certain points about pyramids and Greek civilization.
She notes that not only are the results not very precise, but that other structures mentioned in the research are not in fact pyramids, e.
She also notes the possibility that the stones that were dated might have been recycled from earlier constructions. She also notes that earlier research from the s, confirmed in the s by Fracchia was ignored.
She argues that they undertook their research using a novel and previously untested methodology in order to confirm a predetermined theory about the age of these structures.
Liritzis responded in a journal article published in , stating that Lefkowitz failed to understand and misinterpreted the methodology.
The structures have been dated to the 19th century and their original function explained as a byproduct of contemporary agricultural techniques.
Autochthonous Guanche traditions as well as surviving images indicate that similar structures also known as, "Morras", "Majanos", "Molleros", or "Paredones" could once have been found in many locations on the island.
However, over time they have been dismantled and used as a cheap building material. There are many square flat-topped mound tombs in China.
In the following centuries about a dozen more Han Dynasty royals were also buried under flat-topped pyramidal earthworks. A number of Mesoamerican cultures also built pyramid-shaped structures.
Mesoamerican pyramids were usually stepped, with temples on top, more similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurat than the Egyptian pyramid.
Constructed from the 3rd century BC to the 9th century AD, this pyramid is considered the largest monument ever constructed anywhere in the world, and is still being excavated.
The third largest pyramid in the world, the Pyramid of the Sun , at Teotihuacan is also located in Mexico. There is an unusual pyramid with a circular plan at the site of Cuicuilco , now inside Mexico City and mostly covered with lava from an eruption of the Xitle Volcano in the 1st century BC.
Pyramids in Mexico were often used as places of human sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in , Where, according to Michael Harner , "one source states 20,, another 72,, and several give 80,".
Many pre-Columbian Native American societies of ancient North America built large pyramidal earth structures known as platform mounds. Among the largest and best-known of these structures is Monks Mound at the site of Cahokia in what became Illinois , completed around AD, which has a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
Many of the mounds underwent multiple episodes of mound construction at periodic intervals, some becoming quite large. Another one, named Meta Romuli , standing in the Ager Vaticanus today's Borgo , was destroyed at the end of the 15th century.
Pyramids have occasionally been used in Christian architecture of the feudal era, e. Many giant granite temple pyramids were made in South India during the Chola Empire , many of which are still in religious use today.
The Thanjavur temple was built by Raja Raja Chola in the 11th century. Although Egyptologists often credit his vizier Imhotep as its architect, the dynastic Egyptians themselves, contemporaneously or in numerous later dynastic writings about the character, did not credit him with either designing Djoser's pyramid or the invention of stone architecture.
Though other pyramids were attempted in the 3rd Dynasty after Djoser, it was the 4th Dynasty , transitioning from the step pyramid to true pyramid shape, which gave rise to the great pyramids of Meidum , Dahshur , and Giza.
The last pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, Shepseskaf , did not build a pyramid and beginning in the 5th Dynasty ; for various reasons, the massive scale and precision of construction decreased significantly leaving these later pyramids smaller, less well-built, and often hastily constructed.
By the end of the 6th Dynasty , pyramid building had largely ended and it was not until the Middle Kingdom that large pyramids were built again, though instead of stone, mudbrick was the main construction material.
Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid building occurred in what is present-day Sudan , after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kingdom of Kush , which was then based at Napata.
He gave up after only damaging the Pyramid of Menkaure because the task proved too large. The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to represent the primordial mound from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created.
The shape of a pyramid is also thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance.
Pyramids were often also named in ways that referred to solar luminescence. While it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments, there is continued disagreement on the particular theological principles that might have given rise to them.
One suggestion is that they were designed as a type of "resurrection machine. The Egyptians believed the dark area of the night sky around which the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens.
One of the narrow shafts that extend from the main burial chamber through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards the center of this part of the sky.
This suggests the pyramid may have been designed to serve as a means to magically launch the deceased pharaoh's soul directly into the abode of the gods.
All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which, as the site of the setting sun , was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology.
In , Karl Richard Lepsius produced the first modern list of pyramids — now known as the Lepsius list of pyramids — in which he counted A great many more have since been discovered.
As of November , Egyptian pyramids have been identified. It was found again only during an archaeological dig conducted in Many pyramids are in a poor state of preservation or buried by desert sands.
If visible at all, they may appear as little more than mounds of rubble. As a consequence, archaeologists are continuing to identify and study previously unknown pyramid structures.
The most recent pyramid to be discovered was that of Sesheshet at Saqqara , mother of the Sixth Dynasty pharaoh Teti , announced on 11 November All of Egypt's pyramids, except the small Third Dynasty pyramid at Zawyet el-Maiyitin , are sited on the west bank of the Nile , and most are grouped together in a number of pyramid fields.
The most important of these are listed geographically, from north to south, below. Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid other than the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one ,  the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre , son and successor of Khufu.
Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaeological consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure , which would have placed it among the half-dozen or so largest pyramids in Egypt.
Its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source of stone. Quarrying, which began in Roman times, has left little apart from about fifteen courses of stone superimposed upon the natural hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core.
A small adjacent satellite pyramid is in a better state of preservation. The Giza Plateau is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the "Pyramid of Cheops" , the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre or Chephren , the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure or Mykerinus , along with a number of smaller satellite edifices known as "Queen's pyramids", and the Great Sphinx of Giza.
Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, near its apex. This pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume.
The Giza pyramid complex has been a popular tourist destination since antiquity and was popularized in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Today it is the only one of those wonders still in existence. This site, halfway between Giza and Abusir , is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids.
The northern structure's owner is believed to be pharaoh Nebka , while the southern structure, known as the Layer Pyramid , may be attributable to the Third Dynasty pharaoh Khaba , a close successor of Sekhemkhet.
If this attribution is correct, Khaba's short reign could explain the seemingly unfinished state of this step pyramid. There are a total of fourteen pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty.
The quality of construction of the Abusir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty — perhaps signaling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant economy.
They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of low-quality local limestone. The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre , which is also the best preserved, Neferirkare Kakai and Sahure.
The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. Most of the major pyramids at Abusir were built using similar construction techniques, comprising a rubble core surrounded by steps of mudbricks with a limestone outer casing.
Major pyramids located here include the Pyramid of Djoser — generally identified as the world's oldest substantial monumental structure to be built of dressed stone — the Pyramid of Userkaf , the Pyramid of Teti and the Pyramid of Merikare , dating to the First Intermediate Period of Egypt.
Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas , which retains a pyramid causeway that is one of the best-preserved in Egypt.
Together with the pyramid of Userkaf, this pyramid was the subject of one of the earliest known restoration attempts, conducted by Khaemweset , a son of Ramesses II.
Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed, it would have been larger than Djoser's. Most of these are in a poor state of preservation.
The Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Shepseskaf either did not share an interest in, or have the capacity to undertake pyramid construction like his predecessors.
His tomb, which is also sited at south Saqqara, was instead built as an unusually large mastaba and offering temple complex. A previously unknown pyramid was discovered at north Saqqara in late This area is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt outside Giza and Saqqara, although until the site was inaccessible due to its location within a military base and was relatively unknown outside archaeological circles.
The southern Pyramid of Sneferu , commonly known as the Bent Pyramid , is believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid intended by its builders to be a "true" smooth-sided pyramid from the outset; the earlier pyramid at Meidum had smooth sides in its finished state, but it was conceived and built as a step pyramid, before having its steps filled in and concealed beneath a smooth outer casing of dressed stone.